Defined and addressed in the contract are the issues concerning the agreement. First and foremost, the rights and obligations of both parties must be defined in the written contract. Termination of contract and termination fees should also be included. Commonly, you will find the interest rates and other applicable fees included in the agreement.
Loan agreements, like any contract, reflect an "offer," the "acceptance of the offer," "consideration," and can only involve situations that are "legal" (a term loan agreement involving heroin drug sales is not "legal"). Loan agreements are documented via their commitment letters, agreements that reflect the understandings reached between the involved parties, a promissory note, and a collateral agreement (such as a mortgage or a personal guarantee). Loan agreements offered by regulated banks are different from those that are offered by finance companies in that banks receive a "banking charter" granted as a privilege and involving the "public trust."
"Investment banks" create loan agreements that cater to the needs of the investors whose funds they attempt to attract; "investors" are always sophisticated and accredited organizations not subject to bank regulatory supervision and the need to cater to the public trust. Investment banking activities are supervised by the SEC and their main focus is on whether the correct or proper disclosures are made to the parties who provide the funds.
The final fourth sections contains standard text including details such as contract information, the relationships that exist between the finance parties - in the event of more than one tender and more than one law that apply to the agreement.